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Jack Russell Breed Standard

The Standard of Jack Russell Terrier

The Standard of Jack Russell Terrier - Jack Russell Terrier Granlasco

ORIGIN : England.

 

COUNTRY OF DEVELOPMENT : Australia.

 

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD : 25.10.2000.

 

UTILIZATION : A good working Terrier with ability to go to ground.  An excellent companion dog.

 

CLASSIFICATION F.C.I. :            Group   3         Terriers.

                                              Section 2   Small Terriers.

                                              With working trial.                              

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY : The Jack Russell Terrier originated in England in the 1800’s due to the efforts of the Reverend John Russell.  He developed a strain of Fox Terriers to suit his needs for a dog to run with his foxhounds and go to ground to bolt the fox and other quarry from their dens.  Two varieties evolved with basically similar Standards except for differences, mainly in height and proportions.  The taller, more squarely built dog is now known as the Parson Russell Terrier and the shorter, slightly longer proportioned dog, is known as the Jack Russell Terrier.

 

GENERAL APPEARANCE : A strong, active, lithe working Terrier of great character with flexible body of medium length.  His smart movement matches his keen expression.  Tail docking is optional and the coat may be smooth, rough or broken.

 

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS :

  • The overall dog is longer than high. 
  • The depth of the body from the withers to the brisket should equal the length of foreleg from elbows to the ground.

The girth behind the elbows should be about 40 to 43 cm

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : A lively, alert and active Terrier with a keen, intelligent expression.  Bold and fearless, friendly but quietly confident.

 

HEAD 

 

CRANIAL REGION :

Skull : The skull should be flat and of moderate width gradually decreasing in width to the eyes and tapering to a wide muzzle. 

Stop : Well defined but not over pronounced.

 

FACIAL REGION :

Nose : Black.

Muzzle : The length from the stop to the nose should be slightly shorter than from the stop to the occiput.

Lips : Tight-fitting and pigmented black.

Jaws/Teeth : Very strong, deep, wide and powerful. Strong teeth closing to a scissor bite.

Eyes : Small dark and with keen expression.  MUST not be prominent and eyelids should fit closely.  The eyelid rims should be pigmented black.  Almond shape.

Ears : Button or dropped of good texture and great mobility.

Cheeks : The cheek muscles should be well developed.

 

NECK : Strong and clean allowing head to be carried with poise.

 

BODY :

General : Rectangular.

Back : Level. The length from the withers to the root of tail slightly greater than the height from the withers to the ground.

Loin : The loins should be short, strong and deeply muscled.

Chest : Chest deep rather than wide, with good clearance from the ground, enabling the brisket to be located at the height mid-way between the ground and the withers. Ribs should be well sprung from the spine, flattening on the sides so that the girth behind the elbows can be spanned by two hands - about 40 cm to 43 cm.

Sternum : Point of sternum clearly in front of the point of shoulder.

TAIL : May droop at rest.  When moving should be erect and if docked the tip should be on the same level as ears.

 

LIMBS

 

FOREQUARTERS :

Shoulders : Well sloped back and not heavily loaded with muscle.

Upper arm : Of sufficient length and angulation to ensure elbows are set under the body.

Forelegs : Straight in bone from the elbows to the toes whether viewed

from the front or the side.

  

HINDQUARTERS : Strong and muscular, balanced in proportion to the shoulder.

Stifles : Well angulated.

Hock joints : Low set.

Rear pastern(Metatarsus) : Parallel when viewed from behind while in free standing position.

 

FEET : Round, hard, padded, not large, toes moderately arched, turned neither in nor out.

 

GAIT / MOVEMENT  : True, free and springy.

 

COAT

 HAIR : May be smooth, broken or rough.  Must be weatherproof.  Coats should not be altered (stripped out) to appear smooth or broken.

 

COLOUR : White MUST predominate with black and/or tan markings.  The tan markings can be from the lightest tan to the richest tan (chestnut).

 SIZE AND WEIGHT  :

Ideal Height : 25 cm (10 ins) to 30 cm (12 ins).

Weight : Being the equivalent of 1 kg to each 5 cm in height, i.e. a 25 cm high dog should weigh approximately 5 kg and a 30 cm high dog should weigh 6 kg. 

 FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree. and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.  However, the following weaknesses should be particularly penalised:

  • Lack of true Terrier characteristics.
  • Lack of balance, i.e. over exaggeration of any points.
  • Sluggish or unsound movement.
  • Faulty mouth.

 Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

 N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

History

History - Jack Russell Terrier Granlasco

The Great Britain has a hunting tradition over centuries; its part is a hunt on fox. For this hunt was used hunting dogs, which traced up the fox and then they pursued it with loud barking. Hunters, usually on the horses, followed the dogs and they were able to shut the fox sometimes after hours of pursuing. Nevertheless it happened regularly that the fox hid itself to a burrow and nor the dog neither the hunters could catch it. At this moment terriers improved for this aim has appeared on the scene and hunters can send them to catch the fox in its hole. These terriers were very brave and zealous. They ran quickly towards the fox and barked at it so long that it has left its safety burrow. It was important so that a dog didn't bite the fox to death, it would be the end of the hunt, and it was not the aim. These dogs were called "working terriers". The fox terriers pertained to this group too. The photographs of terriers from 19th century and from the beginning of 20. century give evidence about variety of this breed. There wasn't uniform type here. Colour, structure of hair and also the size were different. In the middle of 19.century cynology was on the rise and also the "not hunters" have started to be interested in fox terriers. Dogmen did'nt almost take their hunting skills into account, important was their look. Fox terriers have gotten to show spaces, where the accent was given on their appearance. The breed standard was made and it was chosen more according to improved breed standard. From these dogs has originated "luxury" neat terrier, which we know up to the present day. Many hunters looked on the disappearing of their working terrier with sorrow. For work under the ground were terriers too big and also their character needful for hunting started to be worse. Hunters have dissociated partialy from exhibition dogs as their owners and have improved terriers suitable for hunt - often without pedigree. To these people pertained a man, who had a big effect on development of Jack Russell terrier - Pastor John Russell. This pastor had almost white, rough-haired, small dogs of good quality, on which we must not forget. Reverend John Russell was one of the oldest members of Kennel Club and he is up today known as the breeder of branch of fox terriers, which is good used for hunting - according to him called Jack Russell terrier. This branch is most roughhewn, primitiver form and has shorter legs than modern exhibition type. Around the year 1818 Jack Russel obtained from dairy-man Marston terrier bitch called "Trump". It has to be a bitch similar to fox terrier but she didn't have so short legs as today's Jack Russell terriers. He always has prefered white dogs with yellow signs. Russell reared short-heared terriers according to pattern "Trump", with long legs, which could follow the hunters during hunting. We could say that "Trump" was a founder of breeding of Jack Russell terrier. Though Russell was one of the founder of Kennel Club and till his deth he stayed its member, he has never exposed his terriers after the year 1869 and he hasn't let them registere into the race book of Kennel Club. During 60 years of his breeding activity he made a type of harsh dogs for hunting needs, which were able to chase out the fox faithfully from the lair, but they hadn't to kill it. These dogs were small; they didn't have more than 15 pounds. His dogs were mostly short-haired. Their hair has a structure of rough-haired puppy's hair. They had, as mentioned, longer legs than today's Jack Russell terrier on the continent. Jack Russell alone has built up his breeding very purposefully. His entries are clear and authentic. When he established his breeding, he made crossing of other blood only rarely. The speech is about dog "Old Jack", working terrier, which obtained a lot of awards on the exhibitions, from breeding of kpt. Percy Williams. Russell used this dog for his breeding in 60´s. Since 1880 different dogs are exposed, of which Jack Russell terriers are ancestors, for example in 1880 "Carlise Tack" daughter of Jack Russell's bitch "Fuss". The next successful bitch was "Pussy", it was sold by Mr. Wootton to a breeder, exhibitor and arbitrator S. E. Shirley for a fantastic price 40 L. (in this time the annual salary of a pastor was 60 L.!). After Russell's death his dogs were dispersed. A big part of them came to Mr. C. H. Basset from Watermonth Castle by Ilfracombe. The dogs have had shorter legs already than first dogs of Jack Russell and they had a little shorter snout. Some names and stories were saved. We can hear about acts of dogs called "Tip", "Nelson" or "Nettle" and so on. Even if this breed can be proud on his long history, it took a long time than cynology has started to engage in it. We can not be surprised at it, because the breeder of Jack Russell terriers didn't want to acknowledge these dogs as a breed at the beginning. Acknowledgement would mean that these dogs would get to exhibitions environmental. Breed standard inseparably connected with refining of appearance led to concessions from original talent to work and working skill by many working dogs. The lovers of working Jack Russell terrier considered it as unacceptable. Today Jack Russell terrier is recognized by FCI meanwhile and it exists its standard edited under FCI 14. december 2000 (number 345).

Jack Russell Terrier Granlasco

Jack Russell Terrier Granlasco